1. Legal Requirements

In accordance with the requirements of the Education (Welfare) Act 2000 and the Code of Behaviour Guidelines issued by the NEWB, the Board of Management of the Fairgreen NS has devised the following anti-bullying policy within the framework of the school’s overall code of behaviour. This policy fully complies with the requirements of the Anti-Bullying Procedures for Primary and Post-Primary Schools which were published in September 2013.

  1. Key principles

The Board of Management recognises the very serious nature of bullying and the negative impact that it can have on the lives of pupils, and is therefore fully committed to the following key principles of best practice in preventing and tackling bullying behaviour:

  • A positive school culture and climate (See Appendix 3) which is welcoming of difference and diversity and is based on inclusivity; encourages pupils to disclose and discuss incidents of bullying behaviour in a non-threatening environment; involves collaboration among and between staff & pupils and promotes respectful relationships across the school community; encourages the work of the student council in this area
  • Effective leadership
  • A school-wide approach
  • A shared understanding of what bullying is and its impact
  • Implementation of education and prevention strategies (including awareness raising measures) that build empathy, respect and resilience in pupils and explicitly address the issues of cyber-bullying and identity-based bullying including in particular, homophobic and transphobic bullying
  • Effective supervision and monitoring of pupils
  • Supports for staff
  • Consistent recording, investigation and follow up of bullying behaviour (including use of established intervention strategies) and ongoing evaluation of the effectiveness of the anti-bullying policy.
  1. Definition of Bullying

In accordance with the Anti-Bullying Procedures for Primary and Post-Primary Schools bullying is defined as follows:

‘Unwanted negative behaviour, verbal, psychological or physical conducted, by an individual or group against another person (or persons) and which is repeated over time’.


The following types of bullying behaviour are included in the definition of bullying:

  • Deliberate exclusion, malicious gossip and other forms of relational bullying
  • cyber-bullying
  • Identity-based bullying such as homophobic bullying, racist bullying, bullying based on a person’s membership of the traveller community and bullying of those with disabilities or special educational needs.

Bullying is repeated aggression – physical, verbal or emotional – conducted by an individual or group against another or others.

  • PHYSICAL: includes pushing, shoving, punching, kicking, poking, tripping, etc.
  • VERBAL: name calling which hurts, insults or humiliates.
  • EMOTIONAL: threats or persistent hurtful remarks regarding sensitive areas e.g. appearance, dress, progress, colour, culture and disability. Isolating or shunning a child. Threats to extort money or possessions. Cyber/text bullying.

The school takes particular care to intervene early in responding to the needs, fears or anxieties of individual members in a sensitive manner.

Issues in relation to Bullying are explored continually during SPHE lessons. 

Should a parent/guardian have any concerns which need to be discussed with a teacher, all staff members are more than willing to facilitate a meeting, made through the proper channels i.e. a phone call to the office, or a note to the class teacher to arrange a convenient time for both parties. The first person to be informed should be the class teacher.

This arrangement ensures that all concerns are dealt with in a dignified, meaningful manner, without infringing on valuable teaching time.

Isolated or once-off incidents of aggressive behaviour, while not to be condoned, cannot be described as bullying. These do not fall within the definition of bullying and should be dealt with, as appropriate, in accordance with the school’s code of behaviour.

Additional information on different types of bullying is set out in Section 2 of the Anti-Bullying Procedures for Primary and Post-Primary Schools and appears as Appendix 1 of this document.

  1. Teachers

The relevant teacher(s) for investigating and dealing with bullying are as follows:

  • The class teacher(s) initially
  • The principal thereafter if necessary
  1. Strategies

The following education and prevention strategies, at the appropriate and relevant level for each class, will be used by the school:


  • Prevention and awareness raising measures across all aspects of bullying and involves strategies to engage pupils in addressing problems when they arise. In particular, such strategies need to build empathy, respect and resilience in pupils
  • Provide pupils with opportunities to develop a positive sense of self-worth
  • Prevention and awareness raising measures focusing on cyber-bullying by educating pupils on appropriate online behaviour, how to stay safe while online
  • Teachers can influence attitudes to bullying behaviour in a positive manner
  • There are a number of curriculum components and programmes which are particularly relevant to the prevention of bullying and the promotion of respect for diversity and inclusiveness. The SPHE curriculum makes specific provision for exploring bullying as well as the inter-related areas of belonging and integrating, communication, conflict, friendship, personal safety and relationships. The Stay Safe & RSE programmes at primary level are personal safety skills programmes which seek to enhance children’s self-protection skills including their ability to recognise and cope with bullying. Various other social, health and media education programmes can further help to address the problem of bullying behaviour.
  • The work could be extended into many other areas such as Art, Drama, Religious Education, and Physical Education. Co-operation and group enterprise can be promoted through team games and practical subjects.
  • Sporting activities in particular can provide excellent opportunities for channelling and learning how to control aggression.
  • The school’s procedures for investigation, follow-up and recording of bullying behaviour and the established intervention strategies used by the school for dealing with cases of bullying behaviour are as follows

The primary aim in investigating and dealing with bullying is to resolve any issues and to restore, as far as is practicable, the relationships of the parties involved (rather than to apportion blame).

  1. Procedures

With this in mind the school’s procedures are as follows:

(i) In investigating and dealing with bullying, the teacher(s) will exercise his/her/their professional judgement to determine whether bullying has occurred, what type if it has and how best the situation might be resolved

(ii) All reports, including anonymous reports of bullying must be investigated and dealt with by the relevant teacher(s). In that way, pupils will gain confidence in ‘telling’. This confidence factor is of vital importance. It should be made clear to all pupils that when they report incidents of bullying, they are not considered to be telling tales but are behaving responsibly.

(iii) Non-teaching staff such as secretaries, special needs assistants (SNAs), bus escorts, caretakers, cleaners must be encouraged to report any incidents of bullying behaviour witnessed by them, or mentioned to them, to the relevant teacher.

(iv) Parents and pupils are required to co-operate with any investigation and assist the school in resolving any issues and restoring, as far as is practicable, the relationships of the parties involved as quickly as possible.

(v) It is very important that all involved (including each set of pupils and parents) understand the above approach from the outset.

(vi) Teachers should take a calm, unemotional problem-solving approach when dealing with incidents of alleged bullying behaviour reported by pupils, staff or parents.

(vii) Initial investigations of bullying will be done in class where possible but some incidents might be best investigated outside the classroom situation to ensure the privacy of all involved.

(ix) All interviews should be conducted with sensitivity and with due regard to the rights of all pupils concerned. Pupils who are not directly involved can also provide very useful information in this way.

(x) When analysing incidents of bullying behaviour, the relevant teacher(s) should seek answers to questions of what, where, when, who and why. This should be done in a calm manner, setting an example in dealing effectively with a conflict in a non-aggressive manner.

(xi) If a group is involved, each member should be interviewed individually at first. Thereafter, all those involved should be met as a group. At the group meeting, each member should be asked for his/her account of what happened to ensure that everyone in the group is clear about each other’s statements.

(xii) Each member of a group should be supported through the possible pressures that they may face from the other members of the group after interview by the teacher.

(xii) Where the relevant teacher(s) has/have determined that a pupil has been engaged in bullying behaviour, it should be made clear to him/her how he/she is in breach of the school’s anti-bullying policy and efforts should be made to try to get him/her to see the situation from the perspective of the pupil being bullied.

(xiii) It may also be appropriate or helpful to ask those involved to write down their account of the incident(s).

(xiv) In cases where it has been determined by the relevant teacher(s) that bullying behaviour has occurred, the parents of the parties involved should be contacted at an early stage to inform them of the matter and explain the actions being taken. The school should give parents an opportunity of discussing ways in which they can reinforce or support the actions being taken by the school and the supports for their pupils.

(xvi) It must also be made clear to all involved (each set of pupils and parents) that in any situation where disciplinary sanctions are required, this is a private matter between the pupil being disciplined, his or her parents and the school.

(xvii) Follow-up meetings with the relevant parties involved may be arranged separately with a view to possibly bringing them together at a later date if the pupil who has been bullied is ready and agreeable.

(xviii) An additional follow-up meeting with parents of the children involved may take place after an appropriate time to ensure that the matter has been resolved satisfactorily.

(xx) Where a parent is not satisfied that the school has dealt with a bullying case in accordance with these procedures, the parents must be referred, as appropriate, to the school’s complaints procedures.

(xxi) In the event that a parent has exhausted the school’s complaints procedures and is still not satisfied, the school must advise the parents of their right to make a complaint to the Ombudsman for Children.

RECORDING: Noting and reporting of bullying behaviour is to be documented using the template for recording bullying behaviour (Appendix 3). All records must be maintained in accordance with relevant data protection legislation. The school’s procedures for noting and reporting bullying behaviour will adhere to the following:

(i) While all reports, including anonymous reports of bullying must be investigated and dealt with by the relevant teacher(s), the relevant teacher(s) will use his/her

professional judgement in relation to the records to be kept of these reports, the actions taken and any discussions with those involved regarding same.

(ii) If it is established by the relevant teacher(s) that bullying has occurred, the relevant teacher(s) must keep appropriate written records which will assist his/her efforts to resolve the issues and restore, as far as is practicable, the relationships of the parties involved

(iii) The relevant teacher(s) must use the recording template at Appendix 2 to record the bullying behaviour.

  1. Programme of Support

The school’s programme of support for working with pupils affected by bullying involves a whole school approach. Given the complexity of bullying behaviour, no one intervention/support programme works in all situations.

Therefore various approaches and intervention strategies may be used including suggesting that parents seek referrals so that appropriate outside agencies in order to receive further support for the pupils and their families if needed.

  1. Supervision

The Board of Management confirms that appropriate supervision and monitoring policies and practices are in place to both prevent and deal with bullying behaviour and to facilitate early intervention where possible.

  1. Prevention of Harassment

The Board of Management confirms that the school will, in accordance with its obligations under equality legislation, take all steps that are reasonably practicable to prevent the harassment of pupils or staff on any of the nine grounds specified i.e. gender, civil status, family status, sexual orientation, religion, age, disability, race and membership of the Travelling Community. See Appendix 1.

  1. Adult Bullying

In the event of any child (or their parent) wishing to make a complaint against a member of staff, they should use the Complaints Procedure as laid down in the Education Act 1998 and agreed between the teacher unions and school management bodies.

In the event of any adult member of the school community wishing to make a complaint against another, they should use the Grievance Procedure as laid down in the Education Act 1998 and agreed between the teacher unions and school management bodies. 

  1. Availability of Policy

This policy is available to school personnel, and is provided to the Parents’ Association. A copy of this policy will be made available to the Department of Education and Skills, and to the patron, if requested.

  1. Review

This policy and its implementation will be reviewed by the Board of Management once in every school year. Date of next review: September 2017

Signed: Tanya Woods

(Chairperson of Board of Management)

Signed: Beryl Trenier


 Date: 8th December 2016














APPENDIX 1:  Types of bullying


The following are some of the types of bullying behaviour that can occur amongst pupils. This list is not exhaustive, but may be viewed as possible examples of inappropriate (bullying) behaviour.


Physical aggression: This behaviour includes pushing, shoving, punching, kicking, poking and tripping people. It may also take the form of severe physical assault.  While pupils often engage in ‘mess fights’, they can sometimes be used as a disguise for physical harassment or inflicting pain. This can include unwanted physical contact, rubbing shoulders, elbowing, following etc.


Intimidation: Some bullying behaviour takes the form of intimidation.  It may be based on the use of very aggressive body language with the voice being used as a weapon. Particularly upsetting can be a facial expression which conveys aggression and/or dislike. Domineering and threatening behaviour, when repeated or directed at an individual or group on a regular basis, may be classified as bullying.


Isolation/exclusion and other relational bullying: This occurs where a certain person is deliberately isolated, excluded or ignored by some or all of the class group. This practice is usually initiated by the person engaged in bullying behaviour and can be difficult to detect. It may be accompanied by writing insulting remarks about the pupil in public places, by passing around notes about or drawings of the pupil or by whispering insults about them loud enough to be heard. Relational bullying occurs when a person’s attempts to socialise and form relationships with peers are repeatedly rejected or undermined. One of the most common forms includes control: ‘Do this or I won’t be your friend anymore’ (implied or stated), a group ganging up against one person (girl or boy), non-verbal gesturing, malicious gossip, spreading rumours about a person or giving them the ‘silent treatment’.

Cyber-bullying: This type of bullying is increasingly common and is continuously evolving. It is bullying carried out through the use of information and communication technologies such as text, social network sites, email, instant messaging (IM), apps, gaming sites, chat rooms and other online technologies. Being the target of inappropriate or hurtful messages is the most common form of online bullying. As cyber-bullying uses technology to perpetrate bullying behaviour and does not require face-to face-contact, cyber-bullying can occur at any time (day or night). Many forms of bullying can be facilitated through cyber-bullying. For example, a target may be sent homophobic text messages or pictures may be posted with negative comments about a person’s sexuality, appearance etc.

Since mobile phones are not permitted in the Fairgreen NS, this is not an issue in the school. However, we are aware that many children do have phones at home, but if incidents of cyber-bullying occur outside the school, it is not within the school’s remit to deal with them.



Name calling: Persistent name-calling directed at the same individual(s) that hurts, insults or humiliates should be regarded as a form of bullying behaviour. Often name calling of this type refers to physical appearance, e.g. size or clothes worn.  Accent or distinctive voice characteristics may attract negative attention. Academic ability can also provoke name calling. This tends to operate at two extremes. There are those who are singled out for attention because they are perceived to be weak academically. At the other extreme there are those who, because they are perceived as high achievers, are also targeted.


Damage to property: Personal property can be the focus of attention for bullying behaviour. This may result in damage to clothing, property, school books and other learning material, or interference with a pupil’s possessions. The contents of school bags and pencil cases may be scattered on the floor.  Items of personal property may be defaced, broken, stolen or hidden.


Extortion: Demands for money may be made, often accompanied by threats (sometimes carried out in the event of the targeted pupil not delivering on the demand). A pupil may also be forced into theft of property for delivery to another who is engaged in bullying behaviour.

























Below is a list of possible behaviours which may be classified as bullying. This list is not exhaustive.


General  behaviours which apply to all types of bullying


·            Harassment based on any of the nine grounds in the equality legislation e.g. sexual harassment, homophobic bullying, racist bullying etc.

·            Physical aggression

·            Shouting

·            Condescending tone of voice

·            Uncontrolled or inappropriate verbal assaults

·            Malicious, disparaging or demeaning comments

·            Malicious tricks

·            Derogatory jokes

·            Cursing or other foul language directed at an individual

·            Damage to property

·            Name calling, including derogatory or offensive nicknames

·            Slagging

·            The production, display or circulation of written words, pictures or other materials aimed at intimidating another person

·            Anonymous letters or notes

·            Offensive graffiti

·            Extortion

·            Intimidation

·            Insulting or offensive gestures

·            The “look”

·            Invasion of personal space

·            A combination of any of the types listed




·            Denigration: Spreading rumors, lies or gossip to hurt a person’s reputation

·            Harassment: Continually sending vicious, mean or disturbing messages to an individual

·            Impersonation: Posting offensive or aggressive messages under another person’s name

·            Flaming: Using inflammatory or vulgar words to provoke an online fight

·            Trickery: Fooling someone into sharing personal information which is then posted online

·            Outing: Posting or sharing confidential or compromising information or images

·            Exclusion: Purposefully excluding someone from an online group

·            Cyber stalking: Ongoing harassment and denigration that causes a person considerable fear for his/her safety

·            Silent telephone/mobile phone call

·            Abusive telephone/mobile phone calls

·            Abusive text messages / emails

·            Abusive communication on social networks e.g. Facebook/Ask.fm/ Twitter/You Tube or on games consoles

·            Abusive website comments/Blogs/Pictures

·            Abusive posts on any form of communication technology

Identity Based Behaviours

Including any of the nine discriminatory grounds mentioned in Equality Legislation (gender including transgender, civil status, family status, sexual orientation, religion, age, disability, race and membership of the Traveller community).


Homophobic and Transgender


·            Spreading rumours about a person’s sexual orientation

·            Taunting a person of a different sexual orientation

·            Name calling e.g. Gay, queer, lesbian…used in a derogatory manner

·            Physical intimidation or attacks

·            Threats

Race, nationality, ethnic background and membership of the Traveller  community


·            Discrimination, prejudice, comments or insults about colour, nationality, culture, social class, religious beliefs, ethnic or traveller background

·            Exclusion on the basis of any of the above




This involves manipulating relationships as a means of bullying. Behaviours include:

·            Malicious gossip

·            Isolation & exclusion

·            Ignoring

·            Excluding from the group

·            Taking someone’s friends away

·            “Bitching”

·            Spreading rumours

·            Breaking confidence

·            Talking loud enough so that the victim can hear

·            The “look”

·            Use or terminology such as ‘nerd’ in a derogatory way

Sexual ·            Unwelcome or inappropriate  sexual comments or touching

·            Harassment


Special Educational Needs,


·         Name calling

·         Taunting others because of their disability or learning needs

·         Taking advantage of some pupils’ vulnerabilities and limited capacity to recognise and defend themselves against bullying

·         Taking advantage of some pupils’ vulnerabilities and limited capacity to understand social situations and social cues.

·         Mimicking a person’s disability

·         Setting others up for ridicule





APPENDIX 2: Template for recording bullying behaviour


  1. Name of pupil being bullied and class group


Name: ___________________­­­­­­____________          Class: __________________


  1. Name(s) and class(es) of pupil(s) engaged in bullying behaviour



  1. Source of bullying concern/report -tick relevant box(es)
Pupil concerned
Other pupil(s)


  1. Location of incidents -tick relevant box(es)


  1. Name of person(s) who reported the bullying concern





  1. Type of Bullying Behaviour – tick relevant box(es)
Physical aggression Cyber-bullying
Damage to property Intimidation
Isolation/Exclusion Malicious gossip
Name calling
Other (specify)





  1. Brief Description of bullying behaviour and its impact







  1. Details of actions taken








Signed ______________________________                        Date ________________

(Relevant Teacher 1)


Signed ______________________________                        Date ________________

(Relevant Teacher 2)


Date submitted to Principal ___________________

























APPENDIX 3: Practical tips for building a positive school culture and climate


The following are some practical tips for immediate actions that can be taken to help build a positive school culture and climate and to help prevent and tackle bullying behaviour.


  • Model respectful behaviour to all members of the school community at all times
  • Explicitly teach pupils what respectful language and respectful behaviour looks like, acts like, sounds like and feels like in class and around the school
  • Display key respect messages in classrooms, in assembly areas and around the school. Involve pupils in the development of these messages
  • Catch the children being good – notice and acknowledge desired respectful behaviour by providing positive attention
  • Consistently tackle the use of discriminatory and derogatory language in the school – this includes homophobic and racist language and language that is belittling of pupils with a disability or SEN
  • Give constructive feedback to pupils when respectful behaviour and respectful language are absent
  • Have a system of encouragement and rewards to promote desired behaviour and compliance with the school rules and routines
  • Explicitly teach pupils about the appropriate use of social media
  • Positively encourage pupils to comply with the school rules on mobile phone and internet use
  • Follow-up and follow through with pupils who ignore the rules
  • Actively involve parents and/or the Parents’ Association in awareness raising campaigns around social media
  • Actively promote the right of every member of the school community to be safe and secure in school
  • Remind pupils to be aware of the motto “Treat others as you would wish to be treated yourself”
  • Highlight and explicitly teach school rules in pupil friendly language in the classroom and in common areas
  • All staff can actively watch out for signs of bullying behaviour
  • Ensure there is adequate playground/school yard/outdoor supervision
  • School staff can get pupils to help them to identify bullying ‘hot spots’ and ‘hot times’ for bullying in the school
    • Hot spots tend to be in the playground/school yard/outdoor areas, corridors and other areas of unstructured supervision
    • Hot times again tend to be times where there is less structured supervision such as when pupils are in the playground/school yard or moving classrooms.
  • Support the establishment and work of student councils where appropriate, involving pupils in the decision-making process


APPENDIX  4 – Sanctions


The purpose of a sanction is to bring about a change in behaviour by:

  • helping students to learn that their behaviour is unacceptable
  • helping them to recognise the effect of their actions and behaviour on others
  • helping students (in ways appropriate to their age and development) to understand that they have choices about their own behaviour and that all choices have consequences
  • helping them to learn to take responsibility for their behaviour.


A sanction may also:

  • reinforce the boundaries set out in the code of behaviour
  • signal to other students and to staff that their wellbeing is being protected.


In instances of more serious breaches of school standards, sanctions may be needed to:

  • prevent serious disruption of teaching and learning
  • keep the student, or other students or adults, safe.


The following steps will be taken when a child behaves inappropriately.  The list is by no means exhaustive.  Teachers may put in place alternative measures bearing in mind the circumstances involved. The aim of any sanction is to prevent the behaviour occurring again and if necessary to help the pupil devise strategies for this.

  • Reasoning with pupil
  • Verbal reprimand including advice on how to improve
  • Temporary separation from peers within class and/or temporary removal to another class
  • Prescribing extra work
  • Writing out the story of what happened
  • Loss of privileges
  • Detention during break or lunchtime
  • Communication with parents
  • Referral to Principal
  • Principal communicating with parents
  • Exclusion (Suspension or Expulsion) from school (in accordance with Rule 130 of the Rules for National Schools as amended by circular and Education Welfare Act 2000)


All efforts will be made to ensure that sanctions will relate as closely as possible to the behaviour, in an appropriate manner, and to restore relationships as soon as possible, if feasible.

Every effort will be made to try to ensure that the bullying pupil(s) acknowledge the wrong of their actions, and appreciate and empathise with the victim. An apology will be required, as well as a promise not to repeat the behaviour. The bullying pupil will also be assured of the support of the school / staff in his / her efforts to reform.


Repeat Offences


Where a pupil has been found to be engaged in bullying behaviour, has formally promised to stop and has broken that promise, any of the following sanctions may be imposed:

–       S/he may be required to write and sign another promise, this time counter-signed by a parent/guardian;

–       Parent(s)/guardian(s) will be contacted by the principal and informed of the nature and extent of the continued bullying behaviour with a view to agreeing a strategy whereby a promise to end the bullying behaviour would be honoured;

–       Parent(s)/guardian(s) may be invited to a meeting with the relevant teacher and the Principal and the pupil;

–       The case may be referred to the Board of Management.

–       The matter will be dealt with in accordance with the school’s Code of Behaviour, which includes the sanctions of suspension and expulsion.


Support programmes


The school’s programme of support for working with pupils affected by bullying is as follows:

  1. Bullied pupils

–     Ending the bullying behaviour

–     Changing the school culture to foster more respect for all pupils

–     Changing the school culture to foster greater empathy towards and support for bullied pupils

–     Indicating clearly that the bullying is not the fault of the targeted pupil through the awareness-raising programme

–     Indicating clearly that the bullying is not the fault of the targeted pupil through the speedy identification of those responsible and speedy resolution of bullying situations

–     After resolution, enabling bullied pupils to complete a victim-impact statement if appropriate

–     Making adequate counselling facilities available to pupils who need it in a timely manner

–     Helping bullied pupils raise their self-esteem by encouraging them to become involved in activities that help develop friendships and social skills (e.g. participation in group work in class and in extra-curricular group or team activities during or after school)

–     Implementing a “buddy system” in the school when applicable

–     Using SPHE and other curricular areas to promote self-esteem, respect and general good behaviour e.g. the “Friends for Life” programme





  1. Bullying pupils

–     Making it clear that bullying pupils who reform are not blamed or punished, and get a “clean sheet”

–     Making it clear that bullying pupils who reform are doing the right and honorable thing and giving them praise for this

–     Making adequate counselling facilities available to help those who need it learn other ways of meeting their needs besides violating the rights of others

–     Helping those who need to raise their self-esteem by encouraging them to become involved in activities that develop friendships and social skills (e.g. participation in group work in class and in extra-curricular group or team activities during or after school)

–     Using learning strategies throughout the school and the curriculum to help enhance pupils’ feelings of self-worth

–     In dealing with negative behaviour in general, encouraging teachers and parents to focus on, challenge and correct the behaviour while supporting the child

–     In dealing with bullying behaviour seeking resolution and offering a fresh start with a “clean sheet” and no blame in return for keeping a promise to reform


Suspension and Expulsion

Before serious sanctions such as detention, suspension or expulsion are used, the normal channels of communication between school and parents will be utilised.  Communication with parents may be verbal or by letter depending on the circumstances, and a record of all communication will be kept.
























Anti-Bullying Policy

Fairgreen NS, Belturbet

Summary – Index


  1. Legal Requirements
  2. Key Principles
  3. Definition of Bullying
  4. Teachers
  5. Strategies
  6. Procedures
  7. Programme of Support
  8. Supervision
  9. Prevention of Harassment
  10. Availability of Policy
  11. Review



Appendix 1: Types of Bullying

Appendix 2: Template for recording bullying behaviour

Appendix 3: Practical tips for building a positive school

culture and climate

Appendix 4: Sanctions